Applications

The global (waste) heat into electricity conversion market for systems < 200 kWe is still virtually untapped. In EACH country in the world there are various segments- applications

SEGMENTS/APPLICATIONS PER COUNTRY

  • Biomass plants – Installations
  • Biogas plants – Installations
  • Diesel /gas engines/generators exhausts
  • Metal Industry
  • Cement industry
  • Glass industry
  • Ceramic industry
  • Paper industry
  • Non ferrous furnaces
  • Refineries
  • Agriculture – Green houses
  • Food processing industry
  • Geothermal solutions
  • Leisure – heated swimming pools
  • Sites isolated from grid power
    (f.i. marine-ships, remote locations, islands etc)
  • Waste incineration ( waste to energy )
  • CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) projects

„Waste” heat source Systeem working fluid Cooling requirements
& Applications
Liquid 95 ºC-120 ºC R245fa < 15 ºC Water

  • Electricity generation
  • Efficiency 6% – 9 %
Liquid 120 ºC-220 ºC
Gas 250 ºC-450 ºC
Solkatherm SES
Solkane mfc 365/R227
mix9307
< 35 ºC Water/cooling tower

  • Electricity generation
  • Low temperature cogeneration max 40 -45ºC
  • Efficency 12 % – 15%
Liquid 220 ºC- 320 ºC
Gas 410 ºC – 850 ºC
Siloxanes MM/MDM
STEAM CYCLE
< 100 ºCWater/cooling tower

  • Electricity generation
  • Cogeneration 95ºC- 135ºC
  • Trigeneration
  • Efficiency 16 % – 20 % +

The schedule of technical applications show that when we have low temperature heat source like 95 C – 120 C the ORC working fluid can be R245fa , but it implicates that because of its boiling point of 14,7 C we need cooling water of 12 C (or lower) to have a reasonable kWe efficiency of max 7% – 9%.

When there is no cooling water of that temperature available the efficiency will be lower as to the point of where is no nett electricity production at all, because there is not only power consumption from the ORC systempump – automatics, but also from hot and cold side circulation pumps/fans.

In case we have high temperature liquids or fluegas higher than 410 C it is possible to implement a steam cycle system in stead of a high temperature siloxane driven ORC. Only with this level of heat sources it is possible to have full co-generation applications for heating or drying.

Termo2Power prefers steam cycle applications because the working fluid ( Water = R718 ) is cheaper and more ecological than refrigerants or siloxanes. In addition the steam system does not need any expander lubrication injection- separation system, what makes the system easier- cheaper.

Also for heat recovery from (bio)gas-diesel combustion engines exhausts the steam cycle is preferred because otherwise there is need of an intermediate heat exchanger and a thermal oil loop before it can heat up an ORC working fluid like Solkatherm SES36.